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Line of Work

» Provides periodically updated analyses to the WHO's Global Health Observatory Health Equity Monitor. It includes periodic statistical analyses of data from health surveys conducted worldwide to detect and monitor health inequalities.

» Acts as a Collaborating Center to the Countdown to 2015 Initiative monitoring advances in maternal, newborn and child health (http://www.countdown2015mnch.org/), drafting 3-year reports on socioeconomic, ethnicity, urban-rural and gender inequalities for 68 countries with high mortality rates, including Brazil. This initiative is joined by several international agencies (WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA), bilateral development agencies, and non-governmental organizations and academic institutions, including UFPel. UFPel was one of the founding members of the Countdown to 2015 Initiative in 2005.

» Conducts and assists research and epidemiological studies on specific aspects of health inequalities in Brazil and worldwide, especially in projects developed at Johns Hopkins University and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Report to the Ministry of Health

In 2012, with the purpose of advising the Ministry of Health about technical aspects of monitoring and evaluation of health inequalities, the ICEH conducted several analyzes on Equity in Health in Brazil, using a selection of indicators extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey (PNDS 2006/07). We are providing acesss to the full technical report.


In our quest to improve the presentation of equity data we explored several different alternatives and the one of choice to compare absolute inequality between interventions, countries, or even time trends is the “equiplot”. It presents the intervention coverage by groups, so that it is possible to “see” both the level of coverage in each group and the distance between groups, that represents absolute inequality. We present two examples of equiplots, one by area of residence, the other by wealth quintiles. In both cases, we can see that under-five mortality decreased in Bangladesh, from 1993 to 2011 for all subgroups. The distance between urban and rural and between poorest and richest clearly decreased along time. These graphs make it easy for non-specialists to grasp the idea of trends in inequalities. We have also developed a Stata code that allows for anyone using this package to produce this type of graph quickly and without hassle. The command allows the user to choose the order of the Y axis, to change the scale of the X axis, the size of the dots, and uses the variable labels for the legend. The code is available freely, with instructions and an example dataset.

Under-five mortality rates in Bangladesh, by area of residence

Figure 1 - Under-five mortality rates in Bangladesh, by area of residence. (Data source: Bangladesh DHS 1993-2011)

Under-five mortality rates in Bangladesh, by wealth quintiles

Figure 2 - Under-five mortality rates in Bangladesh, by wealth quintiles. (Data source: Bangladesh DHS 1993-2011)

You can download the ado file clicking here and a short guide of how to use the ado file clicking here.

You can also install the equiplot ado-file directly from Stata by typing "net install equiplot, from("http://www.equidade.org/files")"

Scientific Products

- Ewerling F, Barros AJD. After 10 years, how do changes in asset ownership affect the Indicador Econômico Nacional? Revista de Saúde Pública. 2017;51(10). Cited

- Fink G, Victora CG, Harttgen K, Vollmer S, Vidaletti LP, Barros AJ. Measuring socioeconomic inequalities with predicted absolute incomes rather than wealth quintiles: a comparative assessment using child stunting data from national surveys. Am J Public Health. 2017:e1-e6. Cited

- Victora CG, Barros AJD, França GVA, da Silva ICM, Carvajal-Velez L, Amouzou A. The contribution of poor and rural populations to national trends in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health coverage: analyses of cross-sectional surveys from 64 countries. Lancet Global Health. 2017. Cited

- Barros, AJD, Ewerling, F. Early childhood development: a new challenge for the SDG era. Lancet Global Health.4(12):e873-e4. Cited

- França, GVA, Restrepo-Méndez, MC, Maia, MFS, Victora, CG, Barros, AJD. Coverage and equity in reproductive and maternal health interventions in Brazil: impressive progress following the implementation of the Unified Health System. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2016;15(1):149. Cited

- Gon G, Restrepo-Méndez MC, Campbell OMR, Barros AJD, Woodd S, Benova L, et al. Who Delivers without Water? A Multi Country Analysis of Water and Sanitation in the Childbirth Environment. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0160572. Cited

- Hosseinpoor AR, Bergen N, Barros AJ, Wong KL, Boerma T, Victora CG. Monitoring subnational regional inequalities in health: measurement approaches and challenges. International journal for equity in health. 2016;15(1):18. Cited

- Hosseinpoor AR, Bergen N, Schlotheuber A, Gacic-Dobo M, Hansen PM, Senouci K, et al. State of inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation coverage in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicountry study of household health surveys. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4(9):e617-e26. Cited

- Huicho L, Huayanay-Espinoza CA, Herrera-Perez E, Niño de Guzman J, Rivera-Ch M, Restrepo-Méndez MC, et al. Examining national and district-level trends in neonatal health in Peru through an equity lens: a success story driven by political will and societal advocacy. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(2):103-17. Cited

- Huicho L, Segura ER, Huayanay-Espinoza CA, de Guzman JN, Restrepo-Méndez MC, Tam Y, et al. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study. The Lancet Global Health. 2016;4(6):e414-e26. Cited

- Joseph G, Silva ICM, Wehrmeister FC, Barros AJD, Victora CG. Inequalities in the coverage of place of delivery and skilled birth attendance: analyses of cross-sectional surveys in 80 low and middle-income countries. Reproductive Health. 2016;13(1):1-13. Cited

- Restrepo-Mendez MC, Barros AJ, Wong KL, Johnson HL, Pariyo G, Wehrmeister FC, et al. Missed opportunities in full immunization coverage: findings from low- and lower-middle-income countries. Glob Health Action. 2016;9:30963. Cited

- Restrepo-Mendez, MC, et al. Inequalities in full immunization coverage: trends in low- and middle-income countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94(11):794-805b. Cited

- Saad-Haddad G, DeJong J, Terreri N, Restrepo-Mendez MC, Perin J, Vaz L, et al. Patterns and determinants of antenatal care utilization: analysis of national survey data in seven countdown countries. J Glob Health. 2016;6(1):010404. Cited

- Tam, Y, Huicho, L, Huayanay-Espinoza, CA, Restrepo-Méndez, MC. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1048. Cited

- Victora CG, Requejo JH, Barros AJ, Berman P, Bhutta Z, Boerma T, et al. Countdown to 2015: a decade of tracking progress for maternal, newborn, and child survival. Lancet. 2016;387(10032):2049-59. Cited

- Victora, C. Socioeconomic inequalities in Health: Reflections on the academic production from Brazil. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2016;15(1):164. Cited

- Wehrmeister FC, Restrepo-Mendez MC, França GVA, Victora CG, Barros AJD. Summary indices for monitoring universal coverage in maternal and child health care. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94:903-12. Cited

- Wehrmeister, FC, Restrepo-Mendez, MC, França, GVA, Victora, CG, Barros, AJD. Summary indices for monitoring universal coverage in maternal and child health care. Bull World Health Organ. 2016;94:903-12. Cited

- Akinyemi A, Adedini S, Hounton S, Akinlo A, Adedeji O, Adonri O, et al. Contraceptive use and distribution of high-risk births in Nigeria: a sub-national analysis. Global health action. 2015;8:29745. Cited

- Barros AJ, Boerma T, Hosseinpoor AR, Restrepo-Mendez MC, Wong KL, Victora CG. Estimating family planning coverage from contraceptive prevalence using national household surveys. Global health action. 2015;8:29735. Cited

- Hosseinpoor AR, Bergen N, Schlotheuber A, International Center for Equity in Health. State of inequality: Reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. Cited

- Hounton S, Barros AJ, Amouzou A, Shiferaw S, Maiga A, Akinyemi A, et al. Patterns and trends of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria: evidence from cross-sectional studies. Global health action. 2015;8:29737. Cited

- Hounton S, Winfrey W, Barros AJ, Askew I. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration. Global health action. 2015;8:29738. Cited

- Maiga A, Hounton S, Amouzou A, Akinyemi A, Shiferaw S, Baya B, et al. Trends and patterns of modern contraceptive use and relationships with high-risk births and child mortality in Burkina Faso. Global health action. 2015;8:29736. Cited

- Requejo JH, Bryce J, Barros AJD, Berman P, Bhutta Z, Chopra M, et al. Countdown to 2015 and beyond: fulfilling the health agenda for women and children. Lancet. 2014. Cited

- Restrepo-Mendez MC, Barros AJ, Requejo J, Duran P, Serpa LA, Franca GV, et al. Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2015;38(1):9-16. Cited

- Restrepo-Mendez MC, Barros AJD, Black RE, Victora CG. Time trends in socio-economic inequalities in stunting prevalence: analyses of repeated national surveys. Public Health Nutrition. 2015;18(12):2097-104. Cited

- Requejo J, Victora C, Bryce J. Data resource profile: countdown to 2015: maternal, newborn and child survival. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(2):586-96. Cited

- Victora CG, Barros AJ. Socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality are falling: but why? The Lancet Global health. 2014;2(3):e122-3. Cited

- Barros AJ, Victora CG. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Determining and Interpreting Inequalities in Coverage of Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Interventions. PLoS Med. 2013;10(5):e1001390 Cited

- Barros AJ, Ronsmans C, Axelson H, Loaiza E, Bertoldi AD, Franca GV, et al. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health interventions in Countdown to 2015: a retrospective review of survey data from 54 countries. Lancet. 2012;379(9822):1225-33. Cited

- Victora CG, Barros AJ, Axelson H, Bhutta ZA, Chopra M, Franca GV, et al. How changes in coverage affect equity in maternal and child health interventions in 35 Countdown to 2015 countries: an analysis of national surveys. Lancet. 2012;380:1149-56. Cited