Equity's logo


Barros AJ, Ronsmans C, Axelson H, Loaiza E, Bertoldi AD, Franca GV, et al. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health interventions in Countdown to 2015: a retrospective review of survey data from 54 countries. Lancet. 2012;379(9822):1225-33.

  1. Alkenbrack S, Chaitkin M, Zeng W, Couture T, Sharma S. Did Equity of Reproductive and Maternal Health Service Coverage Increase during the MDG Era? An Analysis of Trends and Determinants across 74 Low- and Middle-Income Countries. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(9):e0134905.
  2. Axelson H, Gerdtham UG, Ekman B, Dinh TPH, Alfven T. Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: a retrospective study of survey data for 1997-2006. BMC Health Services Research. 2012;12.
  3. Barros AJD, Victora CG. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Determining and interpreting inequalities in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health interventions. PLoS Med. 2013;10(5):119-27.
  4. Barry D, Frew AH, Mohammed H, Desta BF, Tadesse L, Aklilu Y, et al. The Effect of Community Maternal and Newborn Health Family Meetings on Type of Birth Attendant and Completeness of Maternal and Newborn Care Received During Birth and the Early Postnatal Period in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 2014;59(s1):S44-S54.
  5. Benova L, Campbell OMR, Ploubidis GB. A mediation approach to understanding socio-economic inequalities in maternal health-seeking behaviours in Egypt. Bmc Health Services Research. 2015;15.
  6. Berer M. Maternal mortality or women's health: time for action. Reprod Health Matters. 2012;20(39):5-10.
  7. Bhutta ZA, Chopra M. The Countdown for 2015: what lies ahead? Lancet. 2012;380(9848):1125-7.
  8. Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Rizvi A, Gaffey MF, Walker N, Horton S, et al. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost? Lancet. 2013;382(9890):452-77.
  9. Bhutta ZA, Reddy KS. Achieving equity in global health so near and yet so far. Jama. 2012;307(19):2035-6.
  10. Bhutta ZA. Global child survival: beyond numbers. Lancet. 2012;379(9832):2126-8.
  11. Blencowe H, Cousens S. Addressing the challenge of neonatal mortality. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2013;18(3):303-12.
  12. Brearley L, Eggers R, Steinglass R, Vandelaer J. Applying an equity lens in the Decade of Vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:B103-B7.
  13. Bryce J, Arnold F, Blanc A, Hancioglu A, Newby H, Requejo J, et al. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: New Findings, New Strategies, and Recommendations for Action. PLoS Med. 2013;10(5).
  14. Byrne A, Hodge A, Jimenez-Soto E, Morgan A. What works? Strategies to increase reproductive, maternal and child health in difficult to access mountainous locations: a systematic literature review. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e87683.
  15. Callaghan-Koru J, Nonyane B, Guenther T, Sitrin D, Ligowe R, Chimbalanga E, et al. Contribution of community-based newborn health promotion to reducing inequities in healthy newborn care practices and knowledge: evidence of improvement from a three-district pilot program in Malawi. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1052.
  16. Carrera C, Azrack A, Begkoyian G, Pfaffmann J, Ribaira E, O'Connell T, et al. The comparative cost-effectiveness of an equity-focused approach to child survival, health, and nutrition: a modelling approach. Lancet. 2012;380(9850):1341-51.
  17. Casanovas MD, Lutter CK, Mangasaryan N, Mwadime R, Hajeebhoy N, Aguilar AM, et al. Multi-sectoral interventions for healthy growth. Matern Child Nutr. 2013;9:46-57.
  18. Channon AAR. Urban Inequalities in antenatal care and facility birth for 33 countries: evolution over time Southampton University of Southampton; 2013.
  19. Colson KE, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Achoki T, Fullman N, Schneider M, Mulenga P, et al. Benchmarking health system performance across districts in Zambia: a systematic analysis of levels and trends in key maternal and child health interventions from 1990 to 2010. Bmc Medicine. 2015;13.
  20. Corsi DJ, Neuman M, Finlay J, Subramanian SV. Demographic and health surveys: a profile. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2012;41(6):1602-13.
  21. Denno DM, Hoopes AJ, Chandra-Mouli V. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2015;56(1):S22-S41.
  22. Duysburgh E, Kerstens B, Diaz M, Fardhdiani V, Reyes KA, Phommachanh K, et al. Newborn care in Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Philippines: a comprehensive needs assessment. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:46.
  23. Dynes MM, Stephenson R, Hadley C, Sibley LM. Factors Shaping Interactions Among Community Health Workers in Rural Ethiopia: Rethinking Workplace Trust and Teamwork. J Midwifery Women Health. 2014;59:S32-S43.
  24. Fapohunda B, Orobaton NG. Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs. Int J Womens Health. 2014;6:171-83.
  25. Fapohunda BM, Orobaton NG. When Women Deliver with No One Present in Nigeria: Who, What, Where and So What? PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e69569.
  26. Fetene N, Linnander E, Fekadu B, Alemu H, Omer H, Canavan M, et al. The Ethiopian Health Extension Program and Variation in Health Systems Performance: What Matters? PLoS ONE. 2016;11(5):e0156438.
  27. Frickmann H, Schwarz NG, Girmann M, Hagen RM, Poppert S, Crusius S, et al. Serological survey of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Madagascar. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2013;18(1):35-9.
  28. Galan IR. Pediatric global health: the challenge of moving from the intolerable to the improvable. An Pediatr. 2013;78(2):71-4.
  29. Goldenberg RL, McClure EM. Disparities in interventions for child and maternal mortality. Lancet. 2012;379(9822):1178-80.
  30. Graham WJ, McCaw-Binns A, Munjanja S. Translating Coverage Gains into Health Gains for All Women and Children: The Quality Care Opportunity. PLoS Med. 2013;10(1).
  31. Homer CSE, Friberg IK, Dias MAB, Ten Hoope-Bender P, Sandall J, Speciale AM, et al. The projected effect of scaling up midwifery. Lancet. 2014;384(9948):1146-57.
  32. Hunter BM, Requejo JH, Pope I, Daelmans B, Murray SF. National health policy-makers' views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies. Health Res Policy Syst. 2014;12.
  33. Jiwani A, Matheson A, Kahn JG, Raut A, Verguet S, Marseille E, et al. Integrated disease prevention campaigns: assessing country opportunity for implementation via an index approach. BMJ open. 2014;4(3):e004308.
  34. Kengia JT, Igarashi I, Kawabuchi K. Effectiveness of Health Sector Reforms in Reducing Disparities in Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants in Tanzania. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;230(4):241-53.
  35. Kraft AD, Nguyen KH, Jimenez-Soto E, Hodge A. Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines. Plos One. 2013;8(1).
  36. Kumar C, Singh PK, Rai RK. Coverage gap in maternal and child health services in India: assessing trends and regional deprivation during 1992-2006. J Public Health. 2013;35(4):598-606.
  37. Li CL, Jiang T, Hu XZ, Zhao K, Yu Q, Zhang HP. Analysis of the Maternal and Child Health Care Status in Suizhou City, Hubei Province, China, from 2005 to 2011. Plos One. 2013;8(8):7.
  38. Lima PR, Furtado MCC, Reis MCG, Mello DF, Pina JC. Newborn access and care in a health attention program. Rev Eletr Enf. 2016:1-9.
  39. Lynch JW, Stuckler D. 'In God we trust, all others (must) bring data'. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2012;41(6):1503-6.
  40. Maika A, Mittinty MN, Brinkman S, Harper S, Satriawan E, Lynch JW. Changes in socioeconomic inequality in Indonesian children's cognitive function from 2000 to 2007: a decomposition analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e78809.
  41. Malqvist M, Lincetto O, Du NH, Burgess C, Hoa DTP. Maternal health care utilization in Viet Nam: increasing ethnic inequity. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2013;91(4):254-61.
  42. Miller NP, Degefie T, Hazel E, Legesse H, Tolera T, Amouzou A. Coverage and equitability of interventions to prevent child mortality in rural Jimma and West Hararghe Zones, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2014;52(Supp. 3 ):37-45.
  43. Milner KM, Duke T, Bucens I. Reducing newborn mortality in the Asia-Pacific region: Quality hospital services and community-based care. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2013;49(7):511-8.
  44. Molina HF, Nakamura K, Kizuki M, Seino K. Reduction in inequality in antenatal-care use and persistence of inequality in skilled birth attendance in the Philippines from 1993 to 2008. BMJ open. 2013;3(6):8.
  45. Montgomery AL, Ram U, Kumar R, Jha P, Million Death Study Collaborators. Maternal mortality in India: causes and healthcare service use based on a nationally representative survey. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e83331.
  46. Mumtaz Z, Levay A, Bhatti A, Salway S. Signalling, status and inequities in maternal healthcare use in Punjab, Pakistan. Social Science & Medicine. 2013;94:98-105.
  47. Mumtaz Z, Salway S, Bhatti A, McIntyre L. Addressing invisibility, inferiority, and powerlessness to achieve gains in maternal health for ultra-poor women. Lancet. 2014;383(9922):1095-7.
  48. National health policy-makers' views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies
  49. Neal S, Channon AA, Carter S, Falkingham J. Universal health care and equity: evidence of maternal health based on an analysis of demographic and household survey data. International journal for equity in health. 2015;14.
  50. Nguyen KH, Jimenez-Soto E, Dayal P, Hodge A. Disparities in child mortality trends: what is the evidence from disadvantaged states in India? the case of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. International journal for equity in health. 2013;12:14.
  51. Nguyen KH, Jimenez-Soto E, Morgan A, Morgan C, Hodge A. How does progress towards the MDG 4 affect inequalities between different subpopulations? Evidence from Nepal. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2013;67(4):311-9.
  52. O'Reilly KM, Durry E, ul Islam O, Quddus A, Abid N, Mir TP, et al. The effect of mass immunisation campaigns and new oral poliovirus vaccines on the incidence of poliomyelitis in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2001-11: a retrospective analysis. Lancet. 2012;380(9840):491-8.
  53. Okal J, Kanya L, Obare F, Njuki R, Abuya T, Bange T, et al. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda. Health Res Policy Syst. 2013;11:11.
  54. Onarheim KH, Tessema S, Johansson KA, Eide KT, Norheim OF, Miljeteig I. Prioritizing Child Health Interventions in Ethiopia: Modeling Impact on Child Mortality, Life Expectancy and Inequality in Age at Death. Plos One. 2012;7(8):9.
  55. Pascoe SJS, Hargreaves JR, Langhaug LF, Hayes RJ, Cowan FM. 'How Poor Are You?' - A Comparison of Four Questionnaire Delivery Modes for Assessing Socio-Economic Position in Rural Zimbabwe. Plos One. 2013;8(9):9.
  56. Puett C, Hauenstein Swan S, Guerrero S. Access for All: What factors influence access to community-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition? London: Coverage Monitoring Network; 2013.
  57. Quayyum Z, Khan MNU, Quayyum T, Nasreen HE, Chowdhury M, Ensor T. "Can community level interventions have an impact on equity and utilization of maternal health care" - Evidence from rural Bangladesh. International journal for equity in health. 2013;12:13.
  58. Rahmani Z, Brekke M. Antenatal and obstetric care in Afghanistan - a qualitative study among health care receivers and health care providers. Bmc Health Services Research. 2013;13:9.
  59. Raisanen S, Kokki M, Kokki H, Gissler M, Kramer MR, Heinonen S. The use of epidural analgesia for intrapartum pain relief in publicly funded healthcare. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2014;58(3):291-7.
  60. Raisanen S, Randell K, Nielsen HS, Gissler M, Kramer MR, Klemetti R, et al. Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies. Human Reproduction. 2013.
  61. Requejo J, Victora CG, Bryce J. Data Resource Profile: Countdown to 2015: Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2014.
  62. Ricca J, Kureshy N, LeBan K, Prosnitz D, Ryan L. Community-based intervention packages facilitated by NGOs demonstrate plausible evidence for child mortality impact. Health Policy and Planning. 2014;29(2):204-16.
  63. Ruktanonchai CW, Ruktanonchai NW, Nove A, Lopes S, Pezzulo C, Bosco C, et al. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0162006.
  64. Sahu MT, Sahu M. Vitamin D replacement in pregnant women in developing countries. In: Watson RR, editor. Handbook of Vitamin D in Human Health: Prevention, Treatment and Toxicity. Human Health Handbooks. Wageningen: Wageningen Acad Publ; 2013. p. 651-70.
  65. Silva DI, Veríssimo MR, Mazza VA. Vulnerability in the child development: influence of public policies and health programs. Journal of Human Growth and Development. 2015;25(1):11-8.
  66. Singh PK, Kumar C, Rai RK, Singh L. Factors associated with maternal healthcare services utilization in nine high focus states in India: a multilevel analysis based on 14 385 communities in 292 districts. Health Policy and Planning. 2014;29(5):542-59.
  67. Singh PK, Rai RK, Kumar C. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health care coverage in India. Global health action. 2013;6:22217.
  68. Singh PK, Singh L. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey. Journal of Biosocial Science. 2014;46(3):366-85.
  69. Sissoko D, Trottier H, Malvy D, Johri M. The influence of compositional and contextual factors on non-receipt of basic vaccines among children of 12-23-month old in India: a multilevel analysis. Plos One. 2014;9(9).
  70. Skaftun EK, Ali M, Norheim OF. Understanding inequalities in child health in Ethiopia: health achievements are improving in the period 2000-2011. Plos One. 2014;9(8).
  71. Soubeiga D, Gauvin L, Hatem MA, Johri M. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BPCR) interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14(1):129.
  72. Spangler SA, Barry D, Sibley LM. An Evaluation of Equitable Access to a Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Health Program in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 2014;59(s1):S101-S9.
  73. Spangler SA, Barry D, Sibley LM. An Evaluation of Equitable Access to a Community-Based Maternal and Newborn Health Program in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 2014;59(s1):S101-S9.
  74. Spector JM, Lashoher A, Agrawal P, Lemer C, Dziekan G, Bahl R, et al. Designing the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist program to improve quality of care at childbirth. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2013;122(2):164-8.
  75. Sreeramareddy CT, Kumar HNH, Sathian B. Time Trends and Inequalities of Under-Five Mortality in Nepal: A Secondary Data Analysis of Four Demographic and Health Surveys between 1996 and 2011. Plos One. 2013;8(11):12.
  76. Stenberg K, Axelson H, Sheehan P, Anderson I, Gülmezoglu AM, Temmerman M, et al. Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework. Lancet. 2013.
  77. Tran NT, Portela A, Bernis L, Beek K. Developing capacities of community health workers in sexual and reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health: a mapping and review of training resources. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94948.
  78. van Eijk AM, Hill J, Larsen DA, Webster J, Steketee RW, Eisele TP, et al. Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets for the control of malaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis and meta-analysis of national survey data, 2009-11. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(12):1029-42.
  79. Van Malderen C, Ogali I, Khasakhala A, Muchiri SN, Sparks C, Van Oyen H, et al. Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization. International journal for equity in health. 2013;12:13.
  80. Vintzileos AM, Ananth CV, Smulian JC. The use of a comparability scoring system in reporting observational studies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2013(0).
  81. Walker N, Yenokyan G, Friberg IK, Bryce J. Patterns in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health interventions: projections of neonatal and under-5 mortality to 2035. Lancet. 2013;382(9897):1029-38.
  82. Walsh B, Doherty E, O’Neill C. Since the start of the vaccines for children program, uptake has increased, and most disparities have decreased. Health Affairs. 2016;35(2):356-64.
  83. Wang W, Hong R. Levels and determinants of continuum of care for maternal and newborn health in Cambodia: evidence from a population-based survey. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2015;15(62).
  84. Webster J, Kayentao K, Bruce J, Diawara SI, Abathina A, Haiballa AA, et al. Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy with Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Insecticide Treated Nets in Mali: A Quantitative Health Systems Effectiveness Analysis. Plos One. 2013;8(6):15.
  85. Winter HS, Mossialos E, Naci H, Chandra A, Salojee H, Yamashiro Y, et al. The economics of health care delivery. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55(5):482-8.
  86. Yamin AE, Boulanger VM. Embedding sexual and reproductive health and rights in a transformational development framework: lessons learned from the MDG targets and indicators. Reprod Health Matters. 2013;21(42):74-85.
  87. Yamin AE, Boulanger VM. Why Global Goals and Indicators Matter: The Experience of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in the Millennium Development Goals. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. 2014.
  88. Yamin AE. Sexual and Reproductive Health, Rights, and MDG 5 Taking Stock, Looking Forward. Millennium Development Goals and Human Rights: Past, Present and Future2013. p. 232-54.
  89. Yesuf EA, Calderon-Margalit R. Disparities in the use of antenatal care service in Ethiopia over a period of fifteen years. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:10.
  90. Yigzaw M, Zakus D, Tadesse Y, Desalegn M, Fantahun M. Paving the way for universal family planning coverage in Ethiopia: an analysis of wealth related inequality. International journal for equity in health. 2015;14(1):77.
  91. Yuan B, Malqvist M, Trygg N, Qian X, Ng N, Thomsen S. What interventions are effective on reducing inequalities in maternal and child health in low- and middle-income settings? A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):634.
  92. Zafar S, Tasneem Shaikh B. ‘Only systems thinking can improve family planning program in Pakistan’: A descriptive qualitative study. International Journal of Health Policy and Management. 2014;3(7):393-8.